Monday, September 7, 2020

Understanding God’s Rhetorical Question

Who will give them such a heart to be in them 
that they would fear me and keep my commands all days, 
in order that it may go well with them and their sons forever?” 
Deut 5:29 (Lexham)

Right on the heels of the request of the elders of Israel for a Mediator (Moses > Jesus) in Deut 5:23-28, which request God determined was “good,” God then advanced the need for Someone (the Holy Spirit) to give His people a new heart (and hence the New Birth), Deut 5:29.

When handwriting or reading Deuteronomy, the request for a mediator is unexpected, but understandable. God used pyrotechnics on the mountain as He recited the Ten Commandments. The people rejected this unbuffered broadcast from God. God’s response was even more startling, “they are right in all that they have spoken.” Deut 5:28. The elders of Israel were requesting a mediator. Without knowing it, the were ultimately asking for the one and only Mediator between God and man, the man, Christ Jesus.

With growing curiosity comes the next verse. In this verse God rhetorically requests a person or Person. Deuteronomy 5:29 begins with the interrogative pronoun מִי (mi, meaning who?), which is translated in the Greek Septuagint (LXX) as τίς (meaning who, what, how). Verse 29 is translated in the Lexham Translation of the LXX, “Who will give them such a heart to be in them?”

“Who will give them such a heart to be in them?”

This verse thematically parallels Ezekiel 36:25-27, speaking of New Covenant new birth:

“Then I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you shall be clean; I will cleanse you from all your filthiness and from all your idols. I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit within you; I will take the heart of stone out of your flesh and give you a heart of flesh. I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you will keep My judgments and do them.” Ezek 36:25-27 (NKJV).

The similarities are intense. The Holy Spirit inspired Ezekiel to answer God’s rhetorical question in Deuteronomy 5:29. The who? was the Holy Spirit. He would accomplish a new work “within the heart” of those who received His teaching. This work was to be accomplished by “My Spirit,” said the Lord God. God the Father asked the Holy Spirit to savingly work on His behalf for the sake of His people off the pens of Moses and Ezekiel.

God the Father asked the Holy Spirit to savingly work on His behalf for the sake of His people off the pens of Moses and Ezekiel.

Returning to Deuteronomy 5:29. Some astonishing clarity is communicated from the mouth of the Lord God. First of all, a Giver implies a gift. A gift is unearned and undeserved. A gift is free. It is given by grace alone. Second is the location of this giving activity. God’s request was for this outside party to accomplish His work in “their hearts” (plural) and “within them” (plural). God was requesting inner work—in the heart and soul of the individuals concerned—the dividing of their joints and marrow. The resulting transformation was not the activity of those receiving the heart transplant. They would only receive a new nature and become a new creation by the outside the work of the Holy Spirit.

Third, the first result of this inner change orchestrated by God but accomplished by the Holy Spirit was to give them a fear of God. “That they would fear me.” The implication of this verb appears to be a present continuous. There is the beginning of the fear of God, leading to repentance and faith. Then there is the continuation of the fear of God leading to sanctification and obedience.

Fourth, the Spirit of God residing within the people of God would assist them to “keep all My commandments.” This concept was amplified by Ezekiel in the startling verse, “I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you will keep My judgments and do them.” Ezek 36:27. God’s Holy Spirit heart-change within the people of God would "cause" them to observe His commandments!

God’s Holy Spirit heart-change within the people of God would "cause" them to observe His commandments!

Fifth came the blessing, “that it might go well with them and their sons forever.” Consider the two elements in this clause. First, the “good” in this phrase is picked up as the “eu” in the verb “evangelize” and Evangel. The announcement of this good work of the Holy Spirit was and is “Good News”—it is the Gospel of salvation. This message of Good News goes forth that it may “go well” with others. The Hebrew verb יָטַב (to be good) was translated into Greek as the adverb εὖ (good) and the verb εἰμί (to be). Here in Deuteronomy 5:29 comes the “Good” of the “Good News of Jesus Christ"!

Here in Deuteronomy 5:29 comes the “Good” of the “Good News of Jesus Christ"!

The Apostle Paul may have been thinking about Deuteronomy 5:29 when speaking to the jailer in Philippi. The jailer asked, “Sirs, what must I do to be saved?” Acts 16:30. So Paul quickly answered, “Believe in the Lord Jesus Christ, and you will be saved, you and your household.” Acts 16:31. In his response, Paul jumped from believing in Jesus to its end result as found in Deuteronomy 5:29, “that it might go well with them and their sons forever.” Thus he said to the Philippian jailer, “and you [yourself] will be saved” adding “and your household.”

God, therefore, right after the giving of the Ten Commandments in Deuteronomy 5, foreshadowed Jesus as Mediator of a better covenant (Deut 5:28) and petitioned the work of His Holy Spirit (Deut 5:29). God explained the basic elements of the gift of the New Birth. He described the gift of salvation from an exterior Giver, who first gives the fear of God, and then the ability to obey His commandments. In the New Covenant, the Holy Spirit answered God's appeal in Deuteronomy 5. He alone gives inner transformation to God’s called people.


Wednesday, August 19, 2020

22 Motivations to Memorize Psalm 119



In 22 strophes, Psalm 119 brings its reader down a path with multiple interwoven results. The meditating reader learns about a relationship with God through His words. In the original language, the reader has the opportunity to learn basic Hebrew in light of God’s working in-with-and-by His revealed words. Through immense repetition God frames the question, lays out His worldview, and draws in the reader to submit his soul to God’s perspective. 

These truths are unmistakable. In Psalm 119:

  • The question-framing comes from God;
  • The worldview is shaped by God;
  • God orients, reorients, and reshapes one’s entire perspective.

An acrostic Psalm, each of the 22 eight-verse strophes in Psalm 119 begins with a theme word or phrase by which the entire strophe is memorialized in the mind. As with the memorizing of any long portion, the first word or words of each strophe forms the mental chain-link by which the entire strophe is brought to mind. 

It is reasonable to consider that God foreordained just the right theme words which He would use to trigger the content of each strophe in the minds of those hungry enough for Him to memorize this entire psalm. With this in mind, it seems an appropriate study to consider the 22 theme words chosen by God for the memorializing of the words of this psalm:

v. 1       Blessed (אַשְׁרֵ֥י)

v. 9       How To? (בַּמֶּ֣ה)

v. 17     Do Unto (גְּמֹ֖ל)

v. 25     It Clings (דָּֽבְקָ֣ה)

v. 33     Teach Me (הוֹרֵ֣נִי)

v. 41     And Let Come to Me (וִֽיבֹאֻ֣נִי)

v. 49     Remember the Word (זְכֹר־דָּבָ֥ר)

v. 57     My portion (חֶלְקִ֖י)

v. 65     Goodness (טוֹב)

v. 73     Your Hands (יָדֶ֣יךָ)

v. 81     Longing (כָּלְתָ֣ה)

v. 89     Unto Forever (לְעוֹלָ֥ם)

v. 97     How [I Love]! (מָֽה־אָהַ֥בְתִּי)

v. 105   Lamp to My Feet (נֵר־לְרַגְלִ֥י)

v. 113   Double-Minded (סֵעֲפִ֥ים)

v. 121   I Have Worked (עָשִׂיתִי)

v. 129   Wonderful (פְּלָא֥וֹת)

v. 137   Righteous (צַדִּ֣יק)

v. 145   I Call Out (קָרָ֣אתִי)

v. 153   See My Affliction (רְאֵֽה־עָנְיִ֥י)

v. 161   Princes (שָׂרִים)

v. 169   Let It Come (תִּקְרַ֤ב).

There are many interwoven themes in this psalm, such as the repetition of “Teach me Your statautes” found 6 times. However, there is also a progression within the strophes. The first two strophes consider where and how to find the blessing of God. Strophes 13 and 14 begin by such memorable words that they generate choruses in the minds of their readers. It appears that the twentieth strophe, or the Hebrew letter “Resh,” brings the Psalm to a climax, whereby the reader calls out for salvation from God.

Psalm 119 is an immensely profound and meaningful psalm. It is well-worth the memory work of any Christian!

Wednesday, August 5, 2020

Three Experiences Volunteering with Need Him, by Derek Robinson



Is volunteering for a Christian Chatroom actually doing anything for the Kingdom? You may think there wouldn’t be much fruit. There are multitudes of resources for people to access. Wouldn’t they just google a sermon or lecture about what they are going through? Why don’t they just look up a YouTube video on following Jesus?
In my 40+ hours, I have been humbled and encouraged in the conversations that I have had with seekers, believers, and atheists. People are going to the chats, and they are asking difficult, personal questions that take a prayerful, pastoral heart. Here are 3 experiences I have had with volunteering for Need Him.
  • Seeing People Follow Jesus

One story in particular still captivates me. One woman came onto the chat discussing her past of growing up in church and hearing the Gospel. She told herself that she didn’t desire to trust in Father God because her earthly father was abusive. She wanted nothing to do with Christianity… until she had twin babies. She got to see the interaction between the father of her new babies and decided that God the Father really could be good. After we chatted, she appeared to genuinely repent and trust in the work of Jesus, and she planned to go to a church to get baptized. 
  • Shepherding Believers to Stronger Faith

One woman wanted some further pastoral guidance after meeting with her own pastor about a difficult decision she would have to make about her family and faith. She poured out her heart about her son’s rebellion and wanted some Scriptural guidance and prayer. We studied the Scriptures, talked about her son’s potential problems, and prayed for repentance.
  • Defending the Faith against Atheists

In my short time of chatting on Need Him, I have come across numerous atheists wanting to debate the existence of God—It’s more of an outright attack and intellectual bullying on their part, but I digress. These conversations have been incredibly sharpening for my own faith, and I have been able to live out 1 Peter 3:15 in my personal walk. Of course, my goal is to share faith in Christ with them, and I do, but all the while getting to take what I learned in my Apologetics Class and use it in honest defense of the faith.
God has decided to use chat rooms to further his kingdom and strengthen believers, and I have enjoyed being on the frontlines of ministry in the sidelines of a chatroom. Maybe you could become a Need Him volunteer and serve His kingdom in this seemingly insignificant but truly impactful way?

Wednesday, June 10, 2020

Evangelizology: Diagnosing the Disease of Many Questions

Evangelizology: Diagnosing the Disease of Many Questions: Sometimes in street evangelism, in the local church, or even in the classroom settings I encounter persons who pepper me with tangentia...

Diagnosing the Disease of Many Questions


Sometimes in street evangelism, in the local church, or even in the classroom settings I encounter persons who pepper me with tangential questions. I barely construct an answer to their first question when very soon another one arises. In many cases, clear biblical answers do not bring them peace. They seem to be plagued with a specific ailment—the sickness of many questions.
Paul helped Timothy diagnose this disease in persons who sometimes make their way into local churches.
“If anyone teaches otherwise, and assents not to healthful words, those of our Lord Jesus Christ, and to the teaching which is according to godliness, he is puffed up, knowing nothing, but is morbid about questions and strifes of words, from which come envy, strife, railings, evil surmisings, wranglings of men corrupted in mind, and robbed of the truth, supposing that godliness is a means of gain.” 1 Tim 6:3-5-ABPS (1913).
There exists a “morbidity about questions” as this translation puts it—or a “sickness of trifling questions.” The prognosis of this ailment implies that those struck by this disease either ignore that they have it or cannot remedy their antagonistic cognitive thunderstorms.
They convulse under the spell of an epilepsy of doubt. Never satisfied with any answer from the Bible, their “pride of life” retrieves another juicy bone of contention to overwhelm their hopeful spiritual benefactor. Are these not the “wells without water and the clouds carried by the tempest” as described by Peter (2 Pet 2:17-NKJ)?
Who are these quasi-Christians beset with this deadly disease? How can they be vetted? Is there hope for them?
These quasi-Christians sound smart. They position themselves as brilliant, using Pyrrhonic logic they destroy any and all propositions made about God or man. They cloak themselves as contemporary Voltaire’s or David Hume’s. “They have set their mouth against the heavens, and their tongue walks through the earth” (Psa 73:9).
Did Peter temporarily suffer from this ailment when he reproved the Lord Jesus in Matthew 18:22? Did not pride swell his heart after God had revealed to him the true identity of Jesus?
In an interesting portion of Deuteronomy 29, God through Moses described a disease in this same family:
“So that there may not be among you man or woman or family or tribe, whose heart turns away today from the Lord our God, to go and serve the gods of these nations, and that there may not be among you a root bearing bitterness or wormwood; and so it may not happen, when he hears the words of this curse, that he blesses himself in his heart, saying, ‘I shall have peace, even though I follow the dictates of my heart’—as though the drunkard could be included with the sober.” Deut 29:18-19.
At the root of this disease called “wormwood” was total selfishness and pride: “I shall follow the dictates of my own heart!”
God does not tolerate this ailment. He promised that he would forcefully remove this diseased branch. “The Lord would blot out his name from under heaven.” (Deut 29:20). Likewise, Jesus borrowed the punishment language of Moses in John 15:
“If anyone does not abide in Me, he is cast out as a branch and is withered; and they gather them and throw them into the fire, and they are burned.” John 15:6.
Meanwhile, quasi-Christians with this disease of disputes act as Christians and prey on Christians. It’s a game for them! Knowing the right words, they lack the necessary broken and contrite heart. They will not submit to the clear teachings of the Bible. Nor have they repented of their own total inability to save themselves. Rather they prefer their own imaginations about salvation. This disease is deadly!
People have honest questions. An honest question deserve a sincere answer--even if the answer is, “I don’t know.” But then, there is the disease of many questions. The attentive Christian, “wise as a serpent,” should early differentiate between the contrite heart and the crafty soul.
When recognized, Paul gave the admonition that the diseased person should be shunned after a first and second encounter.
“But avoid foolish disputes, genealogies, contentions, and strivings about the law; for they are unprofitable and useless. Reject a divisive man after the first and second admonition, knowing that such a person is warped and sinning, being self-condemned.” Titus 3:9-11.
Yet is there hope for such a quasi-Christian? Yes. Paul also held out an olive branch of expectation.
“And if anyone does not obey our word in this epistle, note that person and do not keep company with him, that he may be ashamed. Yet do not count him as an enemy, but admonish him as a brother.” 2 Thess 3:14-15.
Clearly, Paul’s response to a factious man was not a public burning at the stake. Rather, he held out the hope that this person might repent and accept admonishment.
Likewise, a discussion of the disease of many questions demands our godly introspection:
  • Does your heart churn with antagonism and contradiction as you read and meditate on the teachings of the Bible?
  • Is your heart quieted by the reproofs and promises of God’s words?

Certainly, if our heart is churning and chaffing against the Bible’s admonitions, then we have soul-searching to do. We ought not rest until we have repented of our sin of pride, and humbly submitted to God who speaks perfectly in, with, and by His Holy words.
If a brother or sister in our church appears struck with this ailment, reach out to them one time, then a second time. No more. Do not allow yourself to be caught in their trap, picking up their dreadful disease. After two encounters we can do no more. We must obey the teachings of Paul.
Deliver us, Lord, from the disease of many questions.


Thursday, March 26, 2020

Six “Do Nots” for Evangelism—from the Old Testament


The Old Testament is rich in describing Christian evangelism. This wealth complements New Testament teaching and practice. The Old Testament encourages an unusually bold witness in many ways. For example, there are at least six “do nots” for evangelism in the Old Testament that describe the bold witness that we find lived out on the pages of the New Testament.
  • Be Not Afraid

“O Zion, You who bring good tidings, Get up into the high mountain; O Jerusalem, You who bring good tidings, Lift up your voice with strength, Lift it up, be not afraid; Say to the cities of Judah, ‘Behold your God!’” Isaiah 40:9.
God told the seasoned evangelist, the Apostle Paul, “Be not afraid, but go on speaking and do not keep silent.” Acts 18:9. Be not afraid seems to be the first and foremost message that the Holy Spirit would speak to Christ followers in the face of an evangelism opportunity.
  • Do Not Restrain Your Lips

“I have proclaimed the good news of righteousness In the great assembly; Indeed, I do not restrain my lips, O Lord, You Yourself know.” Psalm 40:9.
The fear of man leads to a deceptively pious restraint. This restraint takes on many faces: “Is now the best time? Maybe God will give me a better opportunity tomorrow?” “Perhaps I have not yet built up a proper relationship with this person.” “I don’t think that they are not really interested in spiritual things anyways.” King David in Psalm 40 affirmed, “Indeed, I did not restrain my lips.”
  • Do Not Hide

I have not hidden Your righteousness within my heart; I have declared Your faithfulness and Your salvation.” Psalm 40:10.
The rulers of the Jews in John 12 hid their faith in Jesus, lest they be put out of the synaguogue. Their course of action was not confirmed by the Holy Spirit. Rather it was condemned. “Nevertheless even among the rulers many believed in Him, but because of the Pharisees they did not confess Him, lest they should be put out of the synagogue; for they loved the praise of men more than the praise of God.” John 12:42-43. King David did not hide the righteousness of God in His heart, but rather, he openly declared His salvation.
  • Do Not Conceal

I have not concealed Your lovingkindness and Your truth From the great assembly.” Psalm 40:10.
Right in the heels of “hiding” our knowledge of God and His salvation in our hearts, David continued synonymously. He affirmed that he had not “concealed” the love of God and the truth of God from the great assembly. King David remembered that he had not kept “concealed” within himself the glorious knowledge of the grace and truth of God.
  • Do Not Be Silent

On your wallsO Jerusalem, I have set watchmen; all the day and all the night they shall never be silent.” Isaiah 62:6.
God combined His words from both Isaiah 62 and Isaiah 40 (as noted above), when he told Paul in the night by a vision, “Be not afraid, but go on speaking and do not keep silent.” Acts 18:9. Once fear has chilled the heart of the Christian, his lips freeze shut in silence. On the other hand, when told to keep silent, Peter and John stated, “We cannot stop speaking what we have seen and heard.” Acts 4:20. God commanded Paul, “Be not silent.”
  • Do Not Rest

You who put the Lord in remembrance, take no rest.” Isaiah 62:6.
Ultimately, our Blessed Hope is a heavenly rest. Our hope is not for a comfortable earthly rest. The Christian must put to death the selfish indulgence of laziness. While keeping all the responsibilities of life in a proper balance, particular attention needs to be taken to assure that we are not living in sloth evangelistically. Living a godly lifestyle, while necessary, is not a substitute for verbal evangelistic activity. So much have I felt this drift toward neglect within myself, that I purposefully carve out time for initiative evangelism into my regular weekly schedule—admittedly, the Coronavirus Pandemic and my wife’s simultaneous pneumonia has put a temporary hold on this activity. God commands His people, “Take no rest.”
Six “do nots” from the Lord from the Old Testament: be not afraid, do not restrain your lips, do not hide, do not conceal, do not be silent, and do not rest. A powerful message from the Holy Spirit. May these be taken as divine encouragement for all of God’s children.

Friday, January 24, 2020

The Christian’s Spiritual Interrelationship with Christ and God in Evangelism

“The one who listens to you listens to Me, and the one who rejects you rejects Me; and he who rejects Me rejects the One who sent Me.” Luke 10:16 (NASB, also used below).
This verse on the disciple’s union with Christ and God in the reception and rejection of the gospel message is very striking indeed. According to this verse, when Jesus’ disciplea were proclaiming the good news—the context of this verse is the “Second Sending Passage in Luke”—their reception or rejection triggered or exemplified the hearer’s reception or rejection of the Godhead.
Consider several points here. This verse is not a one-off verse in the gospels. Jesus repeated this same interrelationship on two other occasions in Matthew 10:40 (before Judas went out for evangelism as one of the Twelve) and John 13:20 (spoken before Judas departed from the Twelve to betray Jesus).
“He who receives you receives Me, and he who receives Me receives Him who sent Me.” Matthew 10:40.
Truly, truly, I say to you, he who receives whomever I send receives Me; and he who receives Me receives Him who sent Me.” John 13:20.
Luke is the only biographer of Jesus who cited Jesus on the rejection of the gospel proclaimer. Four times Luke records Jesus using the verb “reject.” However, in both Matthew and John, Jesus focused His words—in those contexts—only on the hearer’s positive reception.
Amazingly, none of these three Scripture passages appears to be discussed in Shedd’s Dogmatic Theology,[1] Erickson’s Christian Theology,[2] nor in Grudem’s Systematic Theology.[3] Culver mentions Matthew 10:40 in light of the contextual apostolic mission,[4] without necessarily applying its teaching to all gospel proclamation. Garrett, in his Systematic Theology, cited Matthew 10:40 in light of a discussion of Jesus’ commission in John 20:21-23.[5] None of the above authors appear to have cited Luke 10:16 or John 13:20 in their systematic theologies. 
This omission is surprising, being that these verses do not appear inconsequential in understanding the God-Man interrelationship as explained in Scripture. Twelve other Scripture passages discuss this same concept (Exodus 16:8; 1 Samuel 8:7; Psalm 69:9; Ezekiel 3:6-7; Matthew 5:11-12; Mark 9:37; Luke 6:22-23, 26; John 15:20-21; 16:2-3; Hebrews 11:24-26; 12:3-4; and 1 John 4:5-6).[6]
Even more powerful than the amazing interrelationship of the disciple with God is the “plenipotentiary” element invested in the Christian act of evangelizing.[7] It appears that there is a spiritual oneness with God, invested in the act of evangelizing, that triggers an avalanche of spiritual activity around that act.
When a true follower of Christ engages in true gospel proclamation, a tsunami of spiritual forces unleash. The Word of God “judges the thoughts and intents of the heart,” laying bare every hidden thing (Hebrews 4:12-13). “Satan comes immediately” seeking to dislodge the Word from entering the hardpacked soil of the heart (Mark 4:15). The Holy Spirit convicts of “sin, righteousness, and judgment” (John 16:8). The “god of this world” actively works to blind the minds of unbelievers lest “the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ should shine on them” (2 Cor 4:4). Meanwhile, the lost person—hearing the gospel—maybe for the first time—is confronted with a decision: reception or rejection. Reception or rejection of who? Not only the person speaking to him or her, but Christ and God Himself.
According to Jesus, receiving or rejecting the herald is much more than receiving or rejecting a Christian lovingly, humbly, and boldly telling of salvation available only by the blood of Jesus—sins forgiven—peace with God—guilt and shame blotted out.
The person may once, twice, maybe many times reject the gospel. The apostle Paul sure did. Prayerfully that person will one day hear and receive the evangelist—the Christ of whom he speaks—ultimately receiving God himself. But the odds are not good (Matthew 7:13-14). An eternal decision will be sealed one way or the other. The reception or rejection of the gospel herald, and simultaneously the reception or rejection of the Creator God.
“And who is adequate for these things?” 2 Corinthians 2:16.
How could it be that God would invest the decision for or against His eternal covenant bought by the blood of Jesus Christ into the efforts and mouths of His feeble followers? And such He has done. Yes, it is a sublime mystery.
“But we have this treasure in earthen vessels, so that the surpassing greatness of the power will be of God and not from ourselves.” 2 Corinthians 4:7.


[1]William G. T. Shedd, Dogmatic Theology (New York: Charles Scribner’s, 1888 [1st ed.], 1889 [2nd ed.], 1894 [3 vol]; Phillipsburg, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed, 2003).
[2]Millard Erickson, Christian Theology (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1983, 1984, 1985).
[3]Wayne Grudem, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine (Leicester, England: InterVarsity, 1994; Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1994).
[4]“The second purpose, that ‘he might send them out to preach,’ was completed in part when they returned from their first mission to announce to the Jews then living in northern Palestine the presence of the promised Messianic King and his kingdom (Matt. 10:5-7; cf. Luke 8:1-10). They did so as ministers plenipotentiary (Matt. 10:40)” (Robert Duncan Culver, Systematic Theology: Biblical and Historical [Fearn, Ross-shire: Mentor, 2005], 843).
[5]“Preceded by the blessing of peace and followed by the reception of the Holy Spirit and the remission and retention of sins through the disciples [cf. John 20:21-23], the Johannine commission connects the mission of the Twelve with Jesus’ own mission from the Father. Do we have here only an analogy? Or does the mission of the Son form the ground and basis of the apostolic mission? The latter seems more likely (see Matt. 10:40).” (James Leo Garrett, Systematic Theology: Biblical, Historical, and Evangelical, 2 vols, 2nd ed [North Richland Hills, TX: BIBAL, 2005], 2:536).
[6]Overlooking such a repeated concept appears likely for several reasons: (1) the power of precedent; (2) the framing of questions of salvation and conversion; (3) interpreting all these texts as applying only to their immediate context; and (4) widely divergent views on necessity, value, and means of evangelizing. By the way, these verses represent a fraction of the material on this topic. Consider also studies on Paul's use of "working together with God," and being "fellow-worker with Christ." There are a great number of analogous topics, indicating ministry by individual Christians on behalf of God in the name of Christ (cf. 2 Corinthians 5:20-6:2).
[7]Culver (ibid.). Plenipotentiary means “invested with full power.”